Civilization diseases such as: obesity, type 2 diabetes or hypertension are widely regarded as the largest health issues in developing and highly developed countries. Metabolic syndrome diagnosis covers the aforementioned set of pathological states which generate an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The aetiological factors of the metabolic syndrome include: genetic predisposition, insufficient amount of physical activity and excessive food intake. In most patients, these are the real causative factors of the disease.
However, studies have shown that obesity, hypertension and subsequent type 2 diabetes may in some cases be originated from chronic inflammation in the body. Permanent inflammatory state is considered to be the cause of the metabolic syndrome components in a group of patients in which rationalization of diet, physical activity and abandonment of stimulants do not lead to improvement of health and well-being.
In this aspect, a hypothesis that assumes a relationship between food hypersensitivity of IgG – and IgA – dependent types, generating free radicals, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and subsequent accumulation of adipose tissue in the body should be considered.
Chronic inflammation within the body caused by latent food allergies is characterized by an increase in inflammatory mediators, mainly TNF-α, acute phase protein (C-reactive protein, CRP) and proinflammatory interleukins. This leads to the development of insulin resistance (due to the blockage of insulin receptors by TNF-α) and the subsequent manifestation of type II diabetes. Constantly high insulin concentration, due to the inability to attach to blocked receptors, lead to hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia (these can even lead to pancreatic damage).
At the same time, glucose in the blood remains at a constantly high concentration, but it is not used, but only stored in the muscles as fatty acids. It increases body fat content and may result in the development of obesity. Moreover, increased TNF-α levels as a result of latent food allergies may damage leptin receptors. Consequently the hunger and satiety centers in the brain work improperly. For this reason, in obese people excessive food intake takes place and the mechanism of the vicious circle occur resulting in further weight gain.
Chronic inflammation, being IgG – dependent allergy consequence, may promote the occurrence of hypertension and atherosclerosis. In these clinical states, the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) was found to be increased. These molecules interfere with the blood coagulation process and generate free radicals in blood vessels walls, thus contribute to the development of atherosclerotic plaques.
Dieticians and practitioners agree that the reduction of excessive body weight in overweight and obese people, should be preceded by the evaluation of IgA and IgG – dependent food hypersensitivity. Consequently the subsequent implementation of a targeted diet should be particularly effective. This treatment protocol normalizes body weight and reduces the risk of developing other diseases resulting from overweight and obesity.
What’s more, intestinal microbiota imbalance have been shown in people with excessive body mass compared to people of normal weight. Studies state that the most abundant microorganisms in obese people use nutrients much more efficiently thus more calories from food is obtained.
Attempts to encompass alterations within gut microbiota of the obese by means of probiotic therapy aimed at supporting obesity treatment are already being made. This makes the evaluation of gut microbiota composition of high priority when introducing overweight treatment.
In case of metabolic syndrome diagnosis, the following tests are recommended: